What Are The Parts of Solar Panel
The solar panel, also known as a photovoltaic solar panel, is essential equipment for capturing and converting solar rays into photovoltaic energy, but do you know the components of a solar panel and how a solar panel is manufactured?
Solar installers who deal with this type of equipment need this knowledge. After all, it helps understand how the system works, its maintenance, and how solar generation happens.
With that in mind, so that you understand the composition of a solar panel and how a solar panel is manufactured, continue with this content and enjoy learning!
Before discussing how a solar panel is manufactured, knowing all the components needed for this production is essential. Check out what they are below.
1. Photovoltaic cells
This slice of ultra-pure silicon crystal converts solar energy into electrical energy. These cells are fragile and require careful handling.
2. Photovoltaic glass
Also known as special glass, it is a type of glass with a low iron content, tempered and coated with an anti-reflective substance, allowing more light to pass through it.
3. Encapsulating film for a solar panel – EVA
To avoid aging caused by sunlight, the solar panel is coated with a layer of EVA encapsulating film.
4. Photovoltaic Backsheet
The protective background, also called the back sheet, is a white film applied to the back of the solar panel, which protects the panel’s internal components.
This box is responsible for maintaining the safety and good performance of the solar panel. This material is applied as a unique adhesive and helps increase the equipment’s durability.
6. Photovoltaic Anodized Aluminum Frames
They are used to protect the integrity of the solar panel.
Step by step of making a solar panel
A solar panel must be produced step-by-step to perform its function with quality and safety and promote the desired economy. Understand this process below.
1. Cleaning the glass and interconnecting the photovoltaic cells
The glass used in the solar panel mustn’t have any dirt, finger grease, or residue that disturbs or harms the encapsulant. Therefore, so that the glass does not create bubbles or suffer detachment, it is ideal to use a specific machine with a reverse osmosis process.
2. Interconnection of photovoltaic cells
In this process, a particular soldering machine is used, interconnecting the cells with conductive wires made of copper or aluminum.
3. Cell matrix assembly system – layup
The next phase is collecting the arrays of interconnected photovoltaic cells and placing them on top of the glass and EVA. Ideally, a machine should also perform this process phase, thus avoiding component breakage.
3. Manual interconnection
In this step, the strings of cells are soldered, creating an electrical connection between them. This process is carried out manually. In order not to mistake the positioning of the sheets: the second EVA sheet must be placed on the matrix of cells, and then the back sheet must be placed on top of the EVA.
4. Lamination of the solar panel
At that point, four panels are placed in the laminating machine. Then the EVA melts and fuses with all the other layers, providing the necessary durability for the solar panel. After that, it is essential to evaluate the need to remove possible burrs from the sides of the panel.
5. Installation of the junction box
The junction box is quickly fixed with silicone or special double-sided tape sealants. If the chosen option is silicone, the solar panels must stay out of the production line for a while so that the junction box dries out.
6. Aluminum frames
After installing the junction box, it is time to install the aluminum frame with a semi-automatic or automatic press. As we have already said, the aluminum frame is essential as it protects the solar panel glass.
7. Testing and Inspection
The last step in solar panel production is the testing phase, where its quality is tested in two phases, assessing the panel’s safety and durability.
In the Flash Test, a simulation is performed to verify the solar panel’s efficiency, voltage, and current. In the Electroluminescence Test, an X-ray is completed, which verifies whether the panel has microcracks or incompatible cells. These tests are essential for good manufacturers to certify the quality and efficiency of their solar panels.
If you still have questions about how a solar panel is manufactured, the simplest explanation is to hire someone who is an expert in solar panel energy.